Food and Nutrition
December 4, 2020
Mission Defeat Nutrition Deficiency
Class 6 to 8
Key Learning Objectives
1 hour (Approximately)
The student has to play the role of a nutrition expert and suggest remedial actions for nutrition deficiency in the patients. If the student is able to successfully suggest remedial measures, then the nutrition expert is to be promoted as head nutrition expert. With this objective, the student has to assess the deficiency and suggest the right nutritional food to solve the problem.
CONCEPT TO UNDERSTAND
1. Balanced Diet and Nutrition
In our day to day life, we are very much dependent on the food we eat. The food we eat provides us with nutrients that help in maintaining bodily functions. The food often comprises of bio-molecules like protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals etc. These components that are vital for our body are called as nutrients. For heathy living it is very important to have a balanced diet. A balanced diet comprises of all the essential nutrients essential for optimally maintain bodily functions.
2. Essential Nutrients in our Food
For any organism to grow, survive and reproduce nutrients are of vital importance. The nutrient intake not only applies to humans but also applies to plants, animals, fungi etc. The nutrients consumed helps our body elements to grow skin, hair, bones etc. through metabolic functions. There are two major types of nutrients
Macronutrients are major nutrients that we consume in large quantities, these macronutrients help in producing energy, ensure structural functions etc. Macronutrients are broadly classified as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water.
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are primarily found in our food in the form of sugars, starch, fibres etc. Carbohydrates are also found in fruits, vegetables in basic to large quantity. Carbohydrates are primary source of energy that is used to do work, metabolism etc. and is a very important part of our healthy diet
Proteins: Proteins are compounds that are fundamental blocks of the human body. There are many proteins in our body which has several vital functions, these proteins form the body tissues such as muscle, hair etc.
Fats: Fats are a major source of energy that are stored in the body. When the body runs out of carbohydrates, fats act as a source of energy. Fats can produce much more energy than carbohydrates. As compared to carbohydrates, fats are complex and difficult to break down. Too much fat or bad fats can be unhealthy.
Natural Sources of Macronutrients
Fruits, Milk, Potatoes, Corn, Beans, Nuts, Legumes, Whole grains etc.
Milk, Milk products, Broccoli, Black beans, Eggs, Almonds etc.
Olive, Peanut, Avocados, Nuts, Flaxseed, Walnuts, Soymilk, Sesame seeds etc.
Micronutrients play a very important role to support metabolism and other vital functions. Micronutrients primarily comprise of vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are chemical compounds that is required by our body for growth and important functions. In all there are 13 main vitamins example vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K etc. Minerals on the other hand are also crucial for regulating bodily functions. Minerals are used by the body to ensure proper functioning of bones, heart, muscles brain etc. Some of the key minerals are responsible for healthy bones and teeth.
Natural Sources of Macronutrients
Average Daily Requirement (approximate)
Carrot, Broccoli, Fish, Fortified Cereals, Eggs etc.
Good eyesight, healthy teeth, protecting skin and muscles and maintaining integrity in the body
700 mcg to 900 mcg
Milk, Cheese, Eggs, Fish, Spinach, Green Leafy Vegetables
Brain function, body metabolism,
B1, B2,B6,B12 1mg to 3 mg
B3 – 12mg to 15mg
Biotin and folic acid 30 mcg and 400 mcg
Citrus fruits, Cabbage, Strawberry, Potato, Mango, Kiwifruit, Tomato
Protein metabolism, heal wounds, repair of cartilage, bones and teeth, iron absorption, vitamin C reduces the risk of catching common cold
70 mg to 90 mg
Morning Sunlight, Egg yolk, Milk
Strong bones, strong teeth
15 mcg to 20 mcg
Almond, Nuts, Green Leafy Vegetables, Fruit Juices, Avocado
Immune system, prevents blood clotting
7 mg to 15 mg
Spinach, Broccoli, Cabbage, Fish, Cereals, Mustard Green
Helps in wound healing, bone health
1 mg per kg of body weight
Seafood, Milk,Yogurt, Cheese, iodized salt
Brain development, hormone production
110 mcg to 150 mcg
Beans, Nuts, Dried Apricots, Chickpeas, Spinach
Oxygen carrier, provides oxygen to the muscles, hormone production
15 mg to 20 mg
Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium and other minerals
Salt, Groundnut, Soybean, Pulses, Milk etc.
Regulate brain and nerve function, functioning of key organs, bone health, muscle regulation etc
3. Health Issues Associated with Deficiency of Nutrients
Nutrients are very important and essential for our body. Deficiency of nutrients can have a serious implication on human health. Adequate consumption of nutrients is absolutely essential. In the below table, the deficiency associated with each nutrient is listed out.
Diseases and Health Issues associated with them
Eye problems, children below 5 have a risk of suffering from xeropthalmia.
Vitamin B1 deficiency can cause beriberi – muscle and weight loss
Vitamin B6 deficiency can cause skin diseases and anaemia. It can also affect mental health
Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause anaemia and affect the brain, nerved etc.
Deficiency can cause scurvy
Vitamin D deficiency can cause bones to weaken, joint problems and also cause tooth decay
Can cause excessive bleeding in case of an injury or a cut
Nerve damage and loss of movement control
Can cause goiter, it can also cause fatigue, weight gain etc.
Anaemia, Weakness, Brittle nails
Other Minerals like Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium
Weak bones, weak teeth etc.
Thus it is very important to take good care of nutrient requirements by our body.
Vitamins were discovered in the year 1929 by Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, an English biochemist. He was awarded the Nobel prize for this discovery.
The student has to play the role of a nutrition expert and suggest remedial actions for nutrition deficiency in the patients. The patients will have different deficiencies which has to be addressed with the right nutrition value of food.
Game Design Overview:
In the game, the player is a nutrition expert who will have different patients with varying symptoms because of lack of proper nutrition. The player will have to direct the patient to take or consume a food based on daily intake to address the nutrition deficiency. If proper nutritional value food is not provided to the patient, then the nutritional issue will not be addressed and the case will not be closed. If there are too many wrong solutions offered by the nutrition expert that will lead to cancellation of license of the nutrition expert and the game will be over.
How to Design the Game:
As the game begins, the patients will visit the nutrition expert and will address the symptoms. The nutrition expert has to identify the right diet with accurate nutrition value and suggest it to the patient
Hint: Design the solution in such a way that the nutritional diet plans are optimally planned. For example, if the patient has symptoms associated with vitamin A deficiency, then the ideal solution can be to recommend adding raw carrot to the diet or adding carrot juice to the diet.
Once the nutrition expert has solved one case i.e. 1 patient, then next patient will appear stating the symptoms. Step 1 has to be repeated in a way that the right nutritional diet is recommended to the patient
Hint: If wrong solution is given to the patient, then the patient’s symptoms may get worse and will lead to cancellation of license of the nutrition expert leading to ending of the game.
If the nutrition expert is able to give 100% correct diet recommendation to the patients, then the nutrition expert will be promoted to chief nutrition expert and the game will be successfully completed. If there are wrong recommendations, then the license of the nutrition expert will be cancelled and the game will be over.
Image Courtesy: clipart-library.com
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