Resources

Food and Nutrition

Theme

Mission Defeat Nutrition Deficiency

Relevant Grades

Class 6 to 8

Key Learning Objectives

  1. Define the term nutrition
  2. Identify the essential macronutrients and micronutrients
  3. Explain the role of macronutrients and micronutrients in growth and development of our body
  4. Enlist the diseases and deficiencies in individuals without complete nutrition

Session Duration

1 hour (Approximately)

 

THE MISSION:

The student has to play the role of a nutrition expert and suggest remedial actions for nutrition deficiency in the patients. If the student is able to successfully suggest remedial measures, then the nutrition expert is to be promoted as head nutrition expert. With this objective, the student has to assess the deficiency and suggest the right nutritional food to solve the problem.

CONCEPT TO UNDERSTAND

1. Balanced Diet and Nutrition

In our day to day life, we are very much dependent on the food we eat. The food we eat provides us with nutrients that help in maintaining bodily functions. The food often comprises of bio-molecules like protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals etc. These components that are vital for our body are called as nutrients. For heathy living it is very important to have a balanced diet. A balanced diet comprises of all the essential nutrients essential for optimally maintain bodily functions.

 

2. Essential Nutrients in our Food

For any organism to grow, survive and reproduce nutrients are of vital importance. The nutrient intake not only applies to humans but also applies to plants, animals, fungi etc. The nutrients consumed helps our body elements to grow skin, hair, bones etc. through metabolic functions. There are two major types of nutrients

a. Macronutrients

Macronutrients are major nutrients that we consume in large quantities, these macronutrients help in producing energy, ensure structural functions etc. Macronutrients are broadly classified as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water.

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are primarily found in our food in the form of sugars, starch, fibres etc. Carbohydrates are also found in fruits, vegetables in basic to large quantity. Carbohydrates are primary source of energy that is used to do work, metabolism etc. and is a very important part of our healthy diet

Proteins: Proteins are compounds that are fundamental blocks of the human body. There are many proteins in our body which has several vital functions, these proteins form the body tissues such as muscle, hair etc.

Fats: Fats are a major source of energy that are stored in the body. When the body runs out of carbohydrates, fats act as a source of energy. Fats can produce much more energy than carbohydrates. As compared to carbohydrates, fats are complex and difficult to break down. Too much fat or bad fats can be unhealthy.

Macronutrients

Natural Sources of Macronutrients

Carbohydrates

Fruits, Milk, Potatoes, Corn,  Beans, Nuts, Legumes, Whole grains etc.

Proteins

Milk, Milk products, Broccoli, Black beans, Eggs, Almonds etc.

Fats

Olive, Peanut, Avocados, Nuts, Flaxseed, Walnuts, Soymilk, Sesame seeds etc.

b. Micronutrients

Micronutrients play a very important role to support metabolism and other vital functions. Micronutrients primarily comprise of vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are chemical compounds that is required by our body for growth and important functions. In all there are 13 main vitamins example vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K etc. Minerals on the other hand are also crucial for regulating bodily functions. Minerals are used by the body to ensure proper functioning of bones, heart, muscles brain etc. Some of the key minerals are responsible for healthy bones and teeth.

Micronutrients

Natural Sources of Macronutrients

Role

Average Daily Requirement (approximate)

Vitamin A

Carrot, Broccoli, Fish, Fortified Cereals, Eggs etc.

Good eyesight, healthy teeth, protecting skin and muscles and maintaining integrity in the body

700 mcg to 900 mcg

Vitamin B

Milk, Cheese, Eggs, Fish, Spinach, Green Leafy Vegetables

Brain function, body metabolism,

B1, B2,B6,B12 1mg to 3 mg

B3  – 12mg to 15mg

Biotin and folic acid 30 mcg and 400 mcg

Vitamin C

Citrus fruits, Cabbage, Strawberry, Potato, Mango, Kiwifruit, Tomato

Protein metabolism, heal wounds, repair of cartilage, bones and teeth, iron absorption, vitamin C reduces the risk of catching common cold

70 mg to 90 mg

Vitamin D

Morning Sunlight, Egg yolk, Milk

Strong bones, strong teeth

15 mcg to 20 mcg

Vitamin E

Almond, Nuts, Green Leafy Vegetables, Fruit Juices, Avocado

Immune system, prevents blood clotting

7 mg to 15 mg

Vitamin K

Spinach, Broccoli, Cabbage, Fish, Cereals, Mustard Green

Helps in wound healing, bone health

1 mg per kg of body weight

Iodine

Seafood, Milk,Yogurt, Cheese, iodized salt

Brain development, hormone production

110 mcg to 150 mcg

Iron

Beans, Nuts, Dried Apricots, Chickpeas, Spinach

Oxygen carrier, provides oxygen to the muscles, hormone production

15 mg to 20 mg

Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium and other minerals

Salt, Groundnut, Soybean, Pulses, Milk etc.

Regulate brain and nerve function, functioning of key organs, bone health, muscle regulation etc

Variable Quantity

3. Health Issues Associated with Deficiency of Nutrients 

Nutrients are very important and essential for our body. Deficiency of nutrients can have a serious implication on human health. Adequate consumption of nutrients is absolutely essential. In the below table, the deficiency associated with each nutrient is listed out.

Nutrient Deficiency

Diseases and Health Issues associated with them

Vitamin A

Eye problems, children below 5 have a risk of suffering from xeropthalmia.

Vitamin B

Vitamin B1 deficiency can cause beriberi – muscle and weight loss

Vitamin B6 deficiency can cause skin diseases and anaemia. It can also affect mental health

Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause anaemia and affect the brain, nerved etc.

Vitamin C

Deficiency can cause scurvy

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency can cause bones to weaken, joint problems and also cause tooth decay

Vitamin K

Can cause excessive bleeding in case of an injury or a cut

Vitamin E

Nerve damage and loss of movement control

Iodine

Can cause goiter, it can also cause fatigue, weight gain etc.

Iron

Anaemia, Weakness, Brittle nails

Other Minerals like Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium

Weak bones, weak teeth etc.

Thus it is very important to take good care of nutrient requirements by our body.

Interesting Fact

Vitamins were discovered in the year 1929 by Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, an English biochemist. He was awarded the Nobel prize for this discovery.

GAME DESIGN

Problem Statement:

The student has to play the role of a nutrition expert and suggest remedial actions for nutrition deficiency in the patients. The patients will have different deficiencies which has to be addressed with the right nutrition value of food.

Game Design Overview:

In the game, the player is a nutrition expert who will have different patients with varying symptoms because of lack of proper nutrition. The player will have to direct the patient to take or consume a food based on daily intake to address the nutrition deficiency. If proper nutritional value food is not provided to the patient, then the nutritional issue will not be addressed and the case will not be closed. If there are too many wrong solutions offered by the nutrition expert that will lead to cancellation of license of the nutrition expert and the game will be over.

How to Design the Game:

Step 1:

As the game begins, the patients will visit the nutrition expert and will address the symptoms. The nutrition expert has to identify the right diet with accurate nutrition value and suggest it to the patient

Hint: Design the solution in such a way that the nutritional diet plans are optimally planned. For example, if the patient has symptoms associated with vitamin A deficiency, then the ideal solution can be to recommend adding raw carrot to the diet or adding carrot juice to the diet.

Step 2:

Once the nutrition expert has solved one case i.e. 1 patient, then next patient will appear stating the symptoms. Step 1 has to be repeated in a way that the right nutritional diet is recommended to the patient

Hint: If wrong solution is given to the patient, then the patient’s symptoms may get worse and will lead to cancellation of license of the nutrition expert leading to ending of the game.

Step 3:

If the nutrition expert is able to give 100% correct diet recommendation to the patients, then the nutrition expert will be promoted to chief nutrition expert and the game will be successfully completed. If there are wrong recommendations, then the license of the nutrition expert will be cancelled and the game will be over.

Image Courtesy: clipart-library.com

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